Wednesday, June 1, 2022


Experimental Research Design

Research Design- Introduction



 According to William Zikmund, “Research design is defined as a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collection and analyzing the needed information.”

 According to Kerlinger, “Research design is the plan, structure, and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research questions and to control variance.”



 It reduces inaccuracy.

 Helps to get maximum efficiency and reliability.

 Eliminates bias and marginal errors.

 Minimizes wastage of time.

 Helpful for collecting research materials.

 Gives an idea regarding the type of resources required in terms of money, manpower, time, and efforts.

 Guides the research in the right direction

A research design may be regarded as the blueprint of those procedures which are adapted by the researcher for testing the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable. There are several kinds of experimental designs and the selection of any one is based upon the purpose of the research, types of variables to be controlled and manipulated as well as upon the conditions under which the experiment is to be conducted. The main purpose of experimental design is to help the researcher in manipulating the independent variables freely and to provide maximum control of the extraneous variables so that it may be said with all certainty that the experimental change is due to only the manipulation of the experimental variable. The main function of a research design is to explain how you will find answers to your research questions. The research design sets out the logic of your inquiry. It includes the study design and the logistical arrangements that you propose to undertake as well as the measurement procedures. It includes also the sampling strategy, the frame of analysis and the time frame. For any investigation the selection of an appropriate research design is crucial to enable the researcher to arrive at valid findings, comparisons and conclusions. 

According to Thyer (1993) a traditional research design is a blueprint or detailed plan for how to conduct a research study and how to complete the same. Planning such a research design involves, (i) operationalising variables so that they can be measured, (ii) selecting a sample of interest to study, (iii) collecting data to be used as a basis for testing hypothesis, and (iv) analysing the results.

According to Matheson (1970) a research design is a basic plan for research, including the assignment of subjects to the levels of the independent variable and the manipulation of the independent variable.

According to Kerlinger (1986) research design is the plan, structure, and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.

The definition of Kerlinger reveals three important components, which are (i) research design is a plan (ii) research design is the structure (iii) research design is the strategy. Let us see what these are:

i) Research Design is the Plan: The plan is the overall scheme or program of the research. It includes an outline of what the investigator will do from writing the hypotheses and their operational implications to the final analysis of data.

ii) Research Design is the Structure: The structure of the research is more specific. It is the outline, the scheme, the paradigm, of the operation of the variables. When we draw diagrams that outline the variables and their relation and juxtaposition, we build structural schemes for accomplishing operational research purposes.

iii) Research Design is the Strategy: Strategy as used here is also more specific than plan. It includes the methods to be used to gather and analyse the data. In other words strategy implies how the research objectives will be reached and how the problems encountered in the research will be tackled.